Photo Slideshow
See all of the photos from this story
Download PDF
Download a printable PDF version of this article



By Aaron Hoover


Modern medicine has defeated a lot of bogeymen, but it remains locked in a war of attrition with an age-old nemesis: infection.

Nationwide, hospital care workers confront about 1.7 million healthcare-related infections annually — and lose about 99,000 patients to them, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. That’s more than double the fatalities tied to auto wrecks every year.

What’s worse, medicine’s main weapons are flawed or weakening. Disinfectants are impossible to apply everywhere, inevitably leaving spots for bacteria to grow. Chemical controls, such as coated implants, can have dangerous side effects or harm the environment. Antibiotics, one-time miracle cures, are losing their punch to genetically resistant bacteria.

But common menaces such as Staphylococcus aureus, as well as more dangerous cousins such as “flesh eating” methicillin-resistant staph — commonly known by the initials MRSA — may soon face a new barrier.

Ironically, it is inspired by a fearsome flesh eater of its own kind: the shark.

Conventional controls aim to kill bacteria. Tapping the discoveries of a University of Florida materials science and engineering researcher, UF biotechnology spin-off Sharklet Technologies has a radically different approach. The Alachua-based company seeks to discourage bacteria from colonizing surfaces in hospitals and medical devices using a microscopic pattern modeled on the skin of the ocean’s most notorious predator.

Sharklet is gearing up to sell what it calls “engineered surfaces” that, laboratory tests show, ward off not only staph and Escherichia coli, but also the more dangerous MRSA, Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

“We believe we will have hygienic surface covers on the market this year,” says Sharklet Technologies CEO Joe Bagan. “We’re working on different medical devices to put our pattern on, and it’s going to be a little longer for those. Maybe a couple of years.”


The latest weapon in the war on bacteria didn’t spring from a medical laboratory. Instead, it is rooted in materials science and engineering Professor Tony Brennan’s efforts to solve a seemingly unrelated problem: how to keep algae from coating the hulls of submarines and ships.

Some people are lucky enough to have great ideas. For Brennan, it was more a matter of asking a great question.

Brennan remembers the day well. He was visiting the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Oahu in 2002 as part of his Navy-sponsored research. Convinced he could stop tiny algal spores from attaching by using rows of microscopic channels, he had eagerly awaited a look at experimental samples previously submerged in the harbor. But the results were abysmal, with the samples coming out of the water festooned with algae.

He and a handful of colleagues were watching an algae-coated nuclear submarine leave port when the question popped into his head.

“The submarine looked like a big whale lumbering out of the harbor,” Brennan says. “I asked, ‘Do whales foul?’ And everyone said, ‘yeah, whales are heavily fouled.’ So I started asking the question, ‘which marine and freshwater animals don’t foul?’”

He couldn’t get the question answered to his satisfaction that day. But follow-up research revealed that of all big marine animals, sharks remain most glisteningly smooth.

Brennan spent much of his career engineering new biomaterials for dental implants. He asked a colleague at the Florida Institute of Technology, Geoffrey Swain, to take an impression of a shark skin using a common silicone material. Like an impression for an ordinary tooth crown, it provided a negative imprint — in this case, a small, but visible pattern of rounded-off, diamond like, scales. (Many people believe sharks don’t have scales. In fact, the creatures’ scales are very small. They are known as placoid scales, or dermal denticles.)

Each scale was made up of seven tiny ribs. Brennan used a special tool, an optical profilometer, to measure the scales’ corresponding roughness. To his surprise, the ribs’ width-to-height ratios closely matched one of his mathematical models for roughness — one that he had estimated would discourage algae spores from settling.

At the time, Brennan believed the spores would have a negative reaction to surface roughness features measured in a handful of microns. The shark scale ribs were far bigger. So he shrunk the sharkskin rib pattern by a factor of 20, separating each rib by two to five microns. Tapping a process similar to the one used to make computer chips, he next fabricated thousands of these tiny “riblet” patterns on plastic.

He plunged the plastic into algae-laced seawater, waited an hour and pulled it out.

“The first time we tested it,” Brennan says, “we had an 85-percent reduction in the settlement of green algae.”


It was just one small test with just one type of fouling organism, but the results were exciting. That’s because algae and its ilk are major problems not only for the Navy but for all shippers. Fouled vessels have more drag as they move through water, slowing them and cutting into their fuel efficiency. The Navy estimates fouled hulls use 15 to 30 percent more fuel than clean ones, raising its fuel bill by tens of millions of dollars.

Following in the footsteps of shipbuilders since antiquity, the Navy and commercial shipping lines have fought the problem with copper-based paint. But pollution and cost concerns spurred the Navy to look for more environmentally friendly, less expensive solutions.

With the Office of Naval Research’s continued sponsorship, Brennan set about confirming and expanding his results while also seeking to understand the underlying mechanism. He applied for his first patent in 2004. Several years and at least $1 million later — the Florida High Technology Corridor Council has also been a supporter — Brennan has confirmed that his pattern resists not only green algae but also some varieties of barnacles. He has received two patents, has applications for several more patents under consideration and continues to work toward testing the pattern on real-life ship hulls.

Meanwhile, the research has also expanded in a vastly different direction. One of the fouling organisms that Brennan sought to discourage was the tubeworm. Tubeworms need bacteria to settle. So, in the spring of 2005, he asked an undergraduate at work in his laboratory to grow some bacteria on the Sharklet™ pattern.

A few weeks later, Mathew Blackburn reported back: He couldn’t do it. The E. coli bacteria would not attach. Brennan assigned two graduate students to work with Blackburn, but the team could coax the E. coli to grow only up to the side of the pattern.

It wasn’t until Brennan read Blackburn’s final report that the idea dawned on him: Perhaps the pattern could do more than ward off organisms that go after ships. Maybe it could discourage those bad bacteria that target people.

“He thought he was failing, and when I got his report and looked at it, it was like, ‘Holy smokes!’” Brennan says. “This could be very interesting.”


Marine fouling organisms and bacteria are very different life forms. But the two also share important similarities, Brennan says. Both can move, and both put down adhesive pads when they first stick to a surface. Green algae and many bacteria also seem to appreciate company. They take hold singly or in small groups, then seek to establish large colonies.

Like other life forms, Brennan says, bacteria and fouling organisms seek the path of least resistance. He believes the Sharklet pattern discourages colonization because it requires too much energy to put down roots. The consequence: The organisms decide to keep house hunting. With enough surface protected, the theory goes, they die or become less of a threat.

Whatever the mechanism, the Sharklet pattern works — in laboratory tests, at least.
The Navy’s interests were confined to fouling, so Brennan turned to UF’s extensive medical resources to pursue the medical applications.

In 2007, he founded Sharklet Technologies, based at UF’s Sid Martin Biotechnology Development Incubator. There, Brennan chairs the company’s scientific advisory board.

Brennan’s and the company’s tests reveal that the pattern is remarkably effective at delaying colonization from staph, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli and other pathogens. Bagan, Sharklet Technologies’ CEO, says the independent infectious disease laboratory also found a “statistically significant” difference in the survival of MRSA and VRE bacteria in short time trials.

Sharklet Technologies’ time-lapse images tell the tale graphically.

Bacterial colonies grow steadily on a smooth surface over a period of three weeks, whereas they seem to struggle to get established on the Sharklet pattern. By day 21, bacterial films turn 77 percent of the smooth surface bright red —
versus 35 percent of the Sharklet pattern.

As promising as the results have been, the pattern has yet to be tested in a real medical setting. But that’s about to change.

Bagan says Sharklet Technologies has cleared all the major hurdles in an effort to test adhesive-backed versions of the pattern on common hospital surfaces at a large California hospital. Technicians, he says, have already determined the surfaces most likely to contain large bacterial colonies. Known as “high-touch” surfaces, they include nursing call buttons, bed rail control panels and touch-screen cardiac monitor screens. The company plans to apply the adhesive-backed Sharklet pattern to these surfaces and then monitor them for colonization.

Down the road, Sharklet Technologies also hopes to cover and test medical devices and instruments. Bagan says that because the pattern is not a chemical coating and does not introduce any new substances, it probably will not require clinical trials, but some safety trials may be needed.

Whatever the hurdles, the market is huge. The CDC estimates that 32 percent of all healthcare-related infections are tied to urinary tract infections, often stemming from urinary catheters. If the Sharklet pattern could make catheters safer, that alone would have a huge impact.

Brennan, for his part, is eager to gauge his invention’s appeal.

“I am anxious to see this thing put out there because once you put it on the market, you really get a test,” he says. “The market will determine viability.”



related link:

月亮直播app下载手机版 咪哒直播污app在线下载 盘他app下载手机版 后宫视频app污 玉米视频app下载手机版 菠萝蜜视频app污 小蝌蚪视频污app在线下载 菠萝蜜污app在线下载 夜夜直播app下载手机版 菠萝蜜视频app下载手机版 九尾狐直播app下载手机版 红楼直播污app在线下载 盘她s直播污app在线下载 91香蕉污app在线下载 千层浪app下载手机版 水仙直播app污 丝瓜视频app下载手机版 硬汉视频污app在线下载 麻豆传媒映画app污 茶馆视频app下载手机版 ML聚合污app在线下载 粉色视频app污 大秀直播污app在线下载 花姿污app在线下载 bobo直播app下载手机版 木瓜污app在线下载 91直播app下载手机版 含羞草污app在线下载 成版人抖音app下载手机版 和欢视频污app在线下载 黄瓜视频污app在线下载 台湾swagapp污 豆奶app污 幸福宝app下载手机版 小喵直播app污 恋人直播污app在线下载 花样视频污app在线下载 七秒鱼app污 含羞草app下载手机版 富二代短视频污app在线下载 快播破解app下载手机版 水晶直播app污 四虎app下载手机版 s8视频污app在线下载 食色污app在线下载 米老鼠直播app下载手机版 斗艳直播app污 葫芦娃app污 卡哇伊直播app污 快猫视频app污 樱花污app在线下载 金屋藏娇直播间app下载手机版 草鱼app下载手机版 硬汉视频app下载手机版 春水堂app下载手机版 夜猫视频app污 69视频污app在线下载 红颜app下载手机版 富二代f2短视频污app在线下载 69视频污app在线下载 蝶恋花直播app污 尤蜜app下载手机版 黄瓜直播app下载手机版 主播大秀app下载手机版 樱花app污 花样视频污app在线下载 成人直播app下载手机版 青草视频app下载手机版 夜魅直播污app在线下载 草莓直播app污 比心直播app下载手机版 七秒鱼app下载手机版 米老鼠直播app污 香草成视频人app下载手机版 香蕉视频app下载手机版 成版人音色短视频app下载手机版 大番号app下载手机版 木瓜app下载手机版 尤蜜app下载手机版 烟花直播app下载手机版 猫咪视频污app在线下载 BB直播app下载手机版 花秀神器污app在线下载 青青草app下载手机版 猛虎视频污app在线下载 繁花直播app下载手机版 成人快手污app在线下载 97豆奶视频app下载手机版 萝卜视频污app在线下载 蚪音app下载手机版 梦幻直播app下载手机版 91香蕉视频app污 茄子视频app下载手机版 咪哒app下载手机版 蓝精灵直播污app在线下载 大菠萝app下载手机版 西瓜直播app下载手机版 朵朵直播app污 蜜桃直播app下载手机版 成版人短视频app污 杏吧直播app污 BB直播app下载手机版 微啪app污 草榴视频app污 swag台湾app下载手机版 小可爱app污 月亮视频app污 雨燕直播app下载手机版 青草视频污app在线下载 粉色app污 梦鹿直播app下载手机版 黄瓜视频人污app在线下载 小狐仙视频app污 蜜柚直播app污 快猫短视频污app在线下载 小蝌蚪app污 花友直播app污 水晶直播app污 九尾狐视频app污 千层浪直播污app在线下载 名优馆app污 小怪兽app污 小姐姐直播app污 花姿直播app下载手机版 七仙女直播污app在线下载 水晶直播污app在线下载 乐购直播app下载手机版 富二代f2抖音污app在线下载 小优app下载手机版 快猫视频app下载手机版 花秀神器污app在线下载 朵朵直播污app在线下载 富二代f2抖音app污 初恋视频app下载手机版 草莓直播app下载手机版 大菠萝app污 黄鱼视频app下载手机版 JOJO直播污app在线下载 IAVBOBOapp下载手机版 嘿嘿连载app下载手机版 菠萝蜜视频污app在线下载 后宫app污 月亮直播app下载手机版 久草视频app污 烟花直播污app在线下载 冈本视频app下载手机版 香蕉视频污app在线下载 榴莲视频app污 秀色小抖音污app在线下载 月色直播app下载手机版 小可爱app下载手机版 午夜直播间app下载手机版 小狐仙视频污app在线下载 IAVBOBO污app在线下载 茶馆视频app污 四虎app污 水仙直播app污 棉花糖直播污app在线下载 富二代短视频污app在线下载 最污直播污app在线下载 朵朵直播app下载手机版 微杏污app在线下载 芭乐污app在线下载 IAVBOBOapp污 花姬污app在线下载 圣女直播app污 成版人抖音富二代app污 么么直播污app在线下载 薰衣草直播app下载手机版 成版人音色短视频app污 骚虎直播app污 卡哇伊app污 繁花直播app下载手机版 梦露直播app污 小v视频app污 媚妹秀污app在线下载 朵朵直播污app在线下载 彩云直播app下载手机版 水晶直播污app在线下载 蜜柚直播app下载手机版 彩云直播app污 蚪音app下载手机版 花姬app下载手机版 音色短视频污app在线下载 米老鼠直播app污 ML聚合直播污app在线下载 月亮直播app下载手机版 奶茶视频app下载手机版 泡泡直播污app在线下载 丝瓜视频污app下载手机版 光棍影院污app在线下载 台湾swagapp污 暖暖直播app下载手机版 番茄直播app下载手机版 冈本app污 Kitty直播污app在线下载 小蝌蚪视频污app在线下载 后宫视频app污 可乐视频污app在线下载 小可爱app污 小狐仙污app在线下载 91直播app污 小狐仙直播污app在线下载 MM直播app污 铁牛app下载手机版 Avboboapp污 朵朵直播app下载手机版 花姬app下载手机版 月光直播污app在线下载 小姐姐直播污app在线下载 爱爱视频污app在线下载 可乐视频app污 妖妖直播app下载手机版 奶茶视频app污 草榴视频污app在线下载 JAV名优馆污app在线下载 花姿直播app下载手机版 水果视频app下载手机版 盘她污app在线下载 69热污app在线下载 黄页荔枝污app在线下载 草莓污app在线下载 梦鹿直播app污 草莓直播污app在线下载 花姬污app在线下载 食色短视频app污 最污直播app下载手机版 棉花糖直播污app在线下载 泡泡直播app下载手机版 小喵直播app下载手机版 恋人直播app下载手机版 豆奶视频app污 7秒鱼直播污app在线下载 兔子直播app下载手机版 快猫视频污app在线下载 小猪视频污app在线下载 幸福宝污app在线下载 千层浪app下载手机版 豆奶视频app下载手机版 盘她s直播app下载手机版 欢喜视频app下载手机版 套路直播app下载手机版 蜜蜂视频污app在线下载 青草视频app下载手机版 泡泡直播污app在线下载 丝瓜app下载手机版 iavboboapp下载手机版 大秀直播污app在线下载 牛牛视频app污 草榴直播app污 酷咪直播污app在线下载 萝卜视频app下载手机版 泡芙污app在线下载 彩云直播污app在线下载 火辣直播app污 卡哇伊app污 小喵直播污app在线下载 小奶狗视频污app在线下载 Kitty直播污app在线下载 富二代f2抖音app下载手机版 BB直播app下载手机版 大小姐直播app下载手机版 乐购直播app下载手机版 梦鹿直播污app在线下载 芭乐视频污app在线下载 猫咪视频app污 雨云直播污app在线下载 小酒窝直播app污 直播盒子污app在线下载 微杏app下载手机版 91香蕉app下载手机版 茄子视频污app在线下载 迷雾直播污app在线下载 千层浪直播app污 丝瓜污app在线下载 免费黃色直播app下载手机版 泡芙视频污app在线下载 花秀神器app污 小可爱app下载手机版 佳丽直播视频污app在线下载 小宝贝直播污app在线下载 九尾狐视频app污 91视频污app在线下载 性直播污app在线下载 最污直播app污 色秀直播app下载手机版 橙子直播污app在线下载 麻豆传媒视频app下载手机版 大秀直播污app在线下载 套路直播app污 花粥直播app污 香草视频污app在线下载 可乐视频app下载手机版 花狐狸直播app下载手机版 最污直播污app在线下载 香蕉直播app污 黄瓜app下载手机版 初恋视频污app在线下载 茄子app下载手机版 一对一直播app下载手机版 荔枝app污 九尾狐视频app下载手机版 黄瓜视频人app污 蜜蜂视频app下载手机版 9uuapp污 骚虎直播污app在线下载 朵朵直播app污 火辣直播app污 欢喜视频app污 丝瓜污app在线下载 香草视频app污 红娘直播污app在线下载 小狐仙直播污app在线下载 青草视频app下载手机版 硬汉视频app污 花粥直播污app在线下载 成人直播app污 小草莓app下载手机版 盘她污app在线下载 A头条app下载手机版 大菠萝app污 迷雾直播app污 ML聚合污app在线下载 皮卡丘直播污app在线下载 尤蜜视频app下载手机版 快喵污app在线下载 茄子直播app污 浪浪视频app下载手机版 玉米视频污app在线下载 蓝颜污app在线下载 IAVBOBOapp下载手机版 直播盒子app下载手机版 花姬污app在线下载 成版人抖音app污 番茄视频污app在线下载 小奶狗app污 7秒鱼直播污app在线下载 6房间视频直播app污 色秀直播污app在线下载 6房间视频直播app下载手机版 樱花视频app下载手机版 望月直播app污 樱桃视频app污 水蜜桃app下载手机版 享爱直播app污 皮卡丘直播app污 快猫app下载手机版 花姬直播污app在线下载 泡芙短视频污app在线下载 大菠萝app污 水晶直播app下载手机版 红楼直播app下载手机版 主播福利app下载手机版 蝴蝶直播污app在线下载 小优app污 草榴直播app下载手机版 猫咪软件app下载手机版 春水堂视频污app在线下载 91直播app下载手机版 东京视频污app在线下载 千层浪直播app污 花友直播app下载手机版 繁花直播污app在线下载 后宫视频app污 泡泡直播app下载手机版 探探直播app污 花仙子直播app污 仙人掌app污 依恋直播app污 红楼直播污app在线下载 杏花直播app下载手机版 梦幻直播app下载手机版 葡萄视频app下载手机版 鲍鱼视频app污 成版人快手污app在线下载 橙子直播app污 啪嗒视频app污 七秒鱼直播app下载手机版 猛虎视频污app在线下载 萝卜视频app下载手机版 BB直播app污 薰衣草直播污app在线下载 IAVBOBO污app在线下载 黄瓜视频人污app在线下载 秀色小抖音app污 望月app下载手机版 麻豆传媒映画app下载手机版 荔枝污app在线下载 蚪音app污 夜夜直播污app在线下载 蜜蜂视频app污 合欢视频app污 秋葵视频app污 樱桃直播app下载手机版 灭火卫视app污 野花视频app污 云雨直播app污 可乐视频app下载手机版 趣播app污 兔子直播app污 幸福宝app污 盘他直播app下载手机版 月色直播app污 小猪视频污app在线下载 佳丽直播视频app下载手机版 暖暖直播app下载手机版 宅男之家app下载手机版 草榴视频app污 香蕉直播app污 内裤直播污app在线下载 考拉直播app下载手机版 小草视频app污 雨云直播app污 葫芦娃污app在线下载 蓝精灵直播app下载手机版 成版人快手app污 小猪视频app下载手机版 蜜柚app污 遇见直播app下载手机版 葫芦娃污app在线下载 酷咪直播app污 依恋直播污app在线下载 恋人直播污app在线下载 黄瓜app下载手机版 鲍鱼视频app下载手机版 午夜神器app下载手机版 逗趣直播app下载手机版 快喵app污 草莓污app在线下载 Avboboapp污 69视频app污 久草视频app污 樱花雨直播app下载手机版 小v视频污app在线下载 草莓直播app下载手机版 月色直播app下载手机版 梦幻直播app污 番茄直播污app在线下载 烟花直播app污 恋人直播污app在线下载 九尾狐直播污app在线下载 幸福宝app下载手机版 卡哇伊app下载手机版 水晶直播app污 7秒鱼直播污app在线下载 health2污app在线下载 小仙女app下载手机版 樱花雨直播污app在线下载 左手视频app污 草榴视频app污 AVBOBO污app在线下载 芭乐视频app下载手机版 91香蕉污app在线下载 酷咪直播app下载手机版 91直播app下载手机版 金鱼直播污app在线下载 冈本视频污app在线下载 梦露直播污app在线下载 草榴直播污app在线下载 金屋藏娇直播间app污 繁花直播app污 七秒鱼app污 蚪音app下载手机版 麻豆传媒视频app污 黄瓜app污 秀儿直播app下载手机版 美岁直播污app在线下载 水晶直播app污 小小影视app污 秀色小抖音app下载手机版 恋人直播app污 花姬直播污app在线下载 九尾狐直播污app在线下载 91香蕉app下载手机版 花椒直播app污 趣播app下载手机版 木瓜视频app污 IAVBOBOapp下载手机版 小蝌蚪app下载手机版 lutube污app在线下载 月光直播app下载手机版 暖暖直播app下载手机版 灭火卫视污app在线下载 骚虎直播app下载手机版 茄子app下载手机版 盘她app下载手机版 硬汉视频污app在线下载 卡哇伊污app在线下载 朵朵直播app污 小狐仙视频app下载手机版 荔枝视频app下载手机版 麻豆传媒视频app污 杏吧直播污app在线下载 初恋直播污app在线下载 香草成视频人app污 ML聚合app污 小蝌蚪视频污app在线下载 快猫污app在线下载 大象视频app下载手机版 美梦视频污app在线下载 梦鹿直播app下载手机版 大菠萝app污 蝴蝶直播app下载手机版 粉色视频app下载手机版 一对一直播app下载手机版 柚子直播污app在线下载 抖阴直播污app在线下载 幸福宝污app在线下载 享爱app污 硬汉视频app下载手机版 bobo直播app下载手机版 鲍鱼视频app污 牛牛视频app下载手机版 台湾swagapp下载手机版 野花视频app污 榴莲视频污app在线下载 猛虎视频app下载手机版 水蜜桃app下载手机版 小宝贝直播污app在线下载 97豆奶视频app污 草莓直播污app在线下载 食色短视频app污 福利直播污app在线下载 d2天堂污app在线下载 向日葵app污 花椒直播污app在线下载 蜜蜂视频app污 花狐狸直播污app在线下载 铁牛app污 草榴直播污app在线下载 享爱直播app下载手机版 盘他app污 芭乐视频污app在线下载 斗艳直播app污 香蕉视频污app在线下载 夏娃直播app污 大象视频污app在线下载 蓝精灵直播污app在线下载 91香蕉app污 葫芦娃视频app下载手机版 快喵污app在线下载 尤蜜app污 桃花直播app下载手机版 小狐仙app污 秀色直播app污 后宫app下载手机版 享爱app下载手机版 青草视频污app在线下载 咪哒直播app污 红娘直播app污 草榴直播app下载手机版 微啪污app在线下载 米老鼠直播app下载手机版 春水堂污app在线下载 成人直播app污 十里桃花直播app下载手机版 金屋藏娇直播间app污 成版人快手污app在线下载 色秀直播app下载手机版 享爱app污 梦露直播app污 斗艳直播污app在线下载 恋夜秀场污app在线下载 大西瓜视频app下载手机版 尤蜜视频app污 葫芦娃视频app污 可乐视频app污 年华直播污app在线下载 花心社区app污 色秀直播app下载手机版 成版人音色短视频app污 朵朵直播app下载手机版 快猫app污 JOJO直播污app在线下载 月亮视频污app在线下载 樱桃视频app污 麻豆视频app污 抖阴视频app污 fi11含羞草污app在线下载 富二代f2抖音app污 大西瓜视频app下载手机版 免费黃色直播污app在线下载 快猫视频app下载手机版 直播盒子app下载手机版 大秀直播污app在线下载 享爱污app在线下载 A头条app污 夏娃直播app下载手机版 久草app污 蝴蝶直播app下载手机版 初恋视频污app在线下载 蜜桃直播app污 恋夜秀场app污 水晶直播污app在线下载 性直播app下载手机版 成人快手app下载手机版 污直播app污 么么直播app污 小狐仙视频app下载手机版 奶茶视频污app在线下载 主播大秀污app在线下载 红颜app下载手机版 鸭脖视频app污 灭火卫视污app在线下载 趣播app污 小草视频污app在线下载 猫咪软件污app在线下载 丝瓜app下载手机版 福利直播app污 橘子视频污app在线下载 享爱污app在线下载 初见直播app下载手机版 米老鼠直播污app在线下载 丝瓜视频污污app在线下载 成版人抖音污app在线下载 和欢视频app下载手机版 云雨直播app污 性福宝污app在线下载 成人快手app污 福利直播app下载手机版 豆奶污app在线下载 富二代f2app污 豆奶视频污app在线下载 麻豆传媒直播app下载手机版 十里桃花直播污app在线下载 佳丽直播视频app下载手机版 avgoapp污 红玫瑰直播app下载手机版 AVnight污app在线下载 咪哒直播app污 大秀直播污app在线下载 金鱼直播污app在线下载 富二代app下载手机版 和欢视频污app在线下载 望月直播app污 小宝贝直播污app在线下载 麻豆传媒直播app下载手机版 丝瓜视频app下载手机版 91视频app下载手机版 夜猫视频app下载手机版 老王视频污app在线下载 f2富二代app下载手机版 猫咪软件app污 么么直播app下载手机版 好嗨哟直播app污 卖肉直播app污 黄瓜视频人污app在线下载 快狐短视频app污 玉米视频app下载手机版 草莓直播app污 小姐姐直播app下载手机版 迷雾直播污app在线下载 月色直播app下载手机版 烟花巷app下载手机版 咪哒app下载手机版 麻豆传媒app下载手机版 芭乐污app在线下载 青草视频app下载手机版 香蕉直播app下载手机版 豆奶抖音短视频污app在线下载 柠檬视频app下载手机版 大番号app污 月色直播app下载手机版 小仙女污app在线下载 小优app污 小酒窝直播污app在线下载 Huluwaapp污 久草app污 小怪兽app下载手机版 可乐视频app下载手机版 陌秀直播污app在线下载 青草视频app下载手机版 可乐视频app下载手机版 小草视频污app在线下载 享受直播app污 荔枝视频app污 橙子直播app污 红娘直播app下载手机版 直播盒子app污 fi11含羞草app下载手机版 千层浪直播污app在线下载 恋人直播污app在线下载 可乐视频app下载手机版 黄瓜app污 爱爱视频污app在线下载 丝瓜视频污app在线下载 初恋视频app下载手机版 污软件app污 七秒鱼app污 蝶恋花app下载手机版 红楼直播app下载手机版 云雨直播污app在线下载 奶茶视频app下载手机版 水蜜桃app下载手机版 七秒鱼app下载手机版 啪嗒视频污app在线下载 直播盒子app下载手机版 初见直播污app在线下载 小喵直播污app在线下载 泡芙短视频污app在线下载 BB直播app下载手机版 雨云直播app污 卖肉直播污app在线下载 7秒鱼app污 樱花app污 小宝贝直播app下载手机版 爱爱视频app污 初恋视频污app在线下载 69视频污app在线下载 猛虎直播app污 望月污app在线下载 iavboboapp下载手机版 九尾狐直播app下载手机版 番茄直播app下载手机版 成版人茄子视频app污 乐购直播污app在线下载 猛虎视频app下载手机版 千层浪直播app污 东京视频app污 大小姐直播app污 萝卜视频app下载手机版 本色视频app下载手机版 大菠萝污app在线下载 小v视频app污 云上花直播污app在线下载 f2富二代污app在线下载 黄鱼视频app下载手机版 夜猫视频app污 咪哒污app在线下载 大番号app污 千层浪直播app下载手机版 咪哒直播app污 成版人抖音app污 心上人直播污app在线下载 樱花视频app下载手机版 夜巴黎直播污app在线下载 云上花直播污app在线下载 九尾狐视频app污 蝴蝶直播污app在线下载 蝶恋花直播app下载手机版 秀色小抖音污app在线下载 香蕉视频污app在线下载 可乐视频app下载手机版 红颜污app在线下载 盘她app污 彩色直播污app在线下载 台湾swag污app在线下载 黄瓜直播app污 樱桃污app在线下载 斗艳直播污app在线下载 尤蜜视频app污 嘿嘿连载污app在线下载 火辣直播污app在线下载 夜魅直播app下载手机版 盘他直播app污 向日葵app污 樱花app下载手机版 f2富二代污app在线下载 夜遇直播号污app在线下载 野花视频污app在线下载 享爱app下载手机版 奶茶视频污app在线下载 比心直播app污 AVBOBOapp污 浪浪视频app污 AVnightapp下载手机版 小怪兽直播app污 红高粱直播app下载手机版 橘子视频app下载手机版 探花直播污app在线下载 花样视频污app在线下载 d2天堂app下载手机版 花姬app污 主播大秀污app在线下载 久草视频app下载手机版 s8视频app污 草榴短视频污app在线下载 初恋直播app下载手机版 月光宝盒直播app污 嘿嘿连载app污 火辣直播app下载手机版 AVBOBOapp下载手机版 成版人快手app下载手机版 荔枝app污 快喵app下载手机版 蘑菇视频app污 小蝌蚪app下载手机版